Viktor Zoltán Kazai - Central European University, Budapest

2019

Osservatorio sulle fonti / Observatory on Sources of Law

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Section: Sources of Law in the EU member States

HUNGARY

By Viktor Zoltán Kazai, Central European University, Budapest

Name of the Act/s


Act XXXIV of 2019 on the amendments necessary for the implementation of the European Union reform on data protection /
2019. évi XXXIV. törvény az Európai Unió adatvédelmi reformjának végrehajtása érdekében szükséges törvénymódosításokról

Date of entry into force of original text

26 April 2019

Date of Text (Adopted)

1 April 2019

Type of text

(name in English / name in the official language)

parliamentary act / törvény

If federal State

If Regional State

Enacted by

Hungarian National Assembly

Reference to the Constitution (art)

Article I (3) (fundamental rights limitation test)

Article 43 (4) (State Audit Office, qualified majority requirement)

Article XXXI (5)-(6) (rights and obligations related to citizenship, qualified majority requirement)

Article XXIX (3) (rights of national minorities, qualified majority requirement)

Article 31 (3) (local governments, qualified majority requirement)

Article 4. (2) and (5) (status, rights and obligations on Members of the National Assembly, qualified majority requirement)

Article 5 (7) (standing order of the National Assembly, qualified majority requirement)

Article 2 (2) (election of Members of the National Assembly, qualified majority requirements)

Subject area

data protection

If the act implements a source of EU Law: cite the relevant EU legal source

Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation)

Comment

To comply with the requirements stemming from the General Data Protection Regulation the Hungarian legislator already amended Act no CXII of 2011 on the Right of Informational Self-Determination and on Freedom of Information. The aim of the present act is to guarantee the consistency between Act no CXII of 2011 and the relevant provisions of other acts related to data protection.

Secondary sources/ doctrinal works (if any)

Short summary of the implementation of the GDPR in Hungary compiled by Baker and McKenzie, 19 July 2018, https://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=3e045c27-67c6-43a5-a5e8-a0a30a07612b

Szabó, Endre: Az adatvédelmi tisztviselőről: a GDPR szabályainak elemzése, Infokommunikáció és jog, Vol. 15, Issue 70 (2018), pp. 3-10

Józan, Flóra : Gondolatok az adatvédelmi tisztviselőről, JURA, Vol. 24, Issue 2 (2018), pp. 394-413

Available Text

http://njt.hu/cgi_bin/njt_doc.cgi?docid=213705.367038

2019

Osservatorio sulle fonti / Observatory on Sources of Law

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Section: Sources of Law in the EU member States

HUNGARY

By Viktor Zoltán Kazai, Central European University, Budapest

Name of the Act/s

Act no. XXVIII of 2019 on the amendment to certain acts related to climate politics / 2019. évi XXVIII. törvény az egyes klímapolitikai tárgyú törvények módosításáról

Date of entry into force of original text

18 April 2019

Date of Text (Adopted)

2 April 2019

Type of text

(name in English / name in the official language)

parliamentary act / törvény

If federal State

If Regional State

Enacted by

Hungarian National Assembly

Reference to the Constitution (art)

 

Subject area

environmental protection

If the act implements a source of EU Law: cite the relevant EU legal source

Directive (EU) 2018/410 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 March 2018 amending Directive 2003/87/EC to enhance cost-effective emission reductions and low-carbon investments

Comment

The act serves the aim of complying with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol and to implement the 2018/410 EU Directive.

Secondary sources/ doctrinal works (if any)

The Environmental Implementation Review 2019, country report Hungary, http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eir/pdf/report_hu_en.pdf

Available Text

http://njt.hu/cgi_bin/njt_doc.cgi?docid=213690.366897

2019

Osservatorio sulle fonti / Observatory on Sources of Law

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Section: Sources of Law in the EU member States

HUNGARY

By Viktor Zoltán Kazai, Central European University, Budapest

Name of the Act/s

Act XV of 2019 on the amendment to certain acts concerning Great-Britain’s and Northern Ireland’s leaving of the European Union / 2019. évi XV. törvény egyes törvények Nagy-Britannia és Észak-Írország Egyesült Királysága Európai Unióból történő rendezetlen kilépése esetére szükséges módosításáról

Date of entry into force of original text

27 March 2019

Date of Text (Adopted)

19 March 2019

Type of text

(name in English / name in the official language)

parliamentary act / törvény

If federal State

If Regional State

Enacted by

Hungarian National Assembly

Reference to the Constitution (art)

 

Subject area

membership of the European Union, Brexit

If the act implements a source of EU Law: cite the relevant EU legal source

 

Comment

The aim of the act is to put in place the necessary legal measures applicable in case Great Britain and Northern Ireland leave the European Union without an agreement (a “no deal Brexit”). Most notably the act amends

-       social security related acts, implementing regulation (EC) No 883/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the coordination of social security systems and Regulation (EC) No 987/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 September 2009 laying down the procedure for implementing Regulation (EC) No 883/2004 on the coordination of social security systems and

-       residence and freedom of movement related acts, in connection with Council Directive 2003/109/EC of 25 November 2003 concerning the status of third-country nationals who are long-term residents.

Secondary sources/ doctrinal works (if any)

 

Available Text

http://njt.hu/cgi_bin/njt_doc.cgi?docid=213449.366250

2019

Osservatorio sulle fonti / Observatory on Sources of Law

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Section: Sources of Law in the EU member States

HUNGARY

By Viktor Zoltán Kazai, Central European University, Budapest

Name of the Act/s

Act no XXIV of 2019 on additional guarantees of the independence of administrative courts / 2019. évi XXIV. törvény a közigazgatási bíróságok függetlenségét biztosító további garanciákról

Date of entry into force of original text

16 April 2019

Date of Text (Adopted)

1 April 2019

Type of text

(name in English / name in the official language)

parliamentary act / törvény

If federal State

If Regional State

Enacted by

Hungarian National Assembly

Reference to the Constitution (art)

Article 25 and 26 (judiciary)

Article 25 (8) (qualified majority requirement)

Subject area

organization of the judiciary, administrative court system

If the act implements a source of EU Law: cite the relevant EU legal source

 

Comment

The reform of the administrative court system has been criticized by European monitoring bodies:

1)     Venice Commission, Opinion on the law on administrative courts and the law on the entry into force of the law on administrative courts and certain transitional rules, CDL-AD(2019)004-e

2)     Report on a proposal calling on the Council to determine, pursuant to Article 7(1) of the Treaty on European Union, the existence of a clear risk of a serious breach by Hungary of the values on which the Union is founded (2017/2131(INL)) (“Sargentini Report) para. 14.

The aim of the act – as officially stated in the explanatory memorandum – is to implement certain changes recommended by the Venice Commission in its opinion on the original reform act. The act does remedy some of the shortcomings of the regulation but does not address the underlying structural problems. The main concern about the reform is that it gives significant influence over the administrative judiciary to the Minister of Justice. Even though this type of separate administrative judicial system – often labelled as Austrian or Bavarian model – does exist in other European jurisdictions, it is argued by critics that in the current political context it serves the aim of undermining the independence of the judiciary.

Secondary sources/ doctrinal works (if any)

Conference on “The rule of law and the independence of the judiciary in Hungary and in Europe – trends, concerns, ways ahead” organized by the Hungarian Helsinki Committee and Amnesty International, on 25 January 2019. The video of the presentations and discussions (in English) is available at: https://www.helsinki.hu/en/the-rule-of-law-and-the-independence-of-the-judiciary-in-hungary-and-in-europe-trends-concerns-ways-ahead/

Uitz, Renáta: What Does the Spring Bring for the Rule of Law in Europe?, VerfBlog, 2019/4/06, https://verfassungsblog.de/what-does-the-spring-bring-for-the-rule-of-law-in-europe/

Available Text

http://njt.hu/cgi_bin/njt_doc.cgi?docid=213665.366786

2019

Osservatorio sulle fonti / Observatory on Sources of Law

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Section: Sources of Law in the EU member States

HUNGARY

By Viktor Zoltán Kazai, Central European University, Budapest

Name of the Act/s

Act no. XXXVI of 2019 on the amendment of certain acts in relation with Act CCVI of 2010 on the Right to Freedom of Conscience and Religion and the Legal Status of Churches, Denominations and Religious Communities / 2019. évi XXXVI. törvény a lelkiismereti és vallásszabadság jogáról, valamint az egyházak, vallásfelekezetek és vallási közösségek jogállásáról szóló 2011. évi CCVI. törvény módosításához kapcsolódóan egyes törvények módosításáról

Date of entry into force of original text

15 April 2019

Date of Text (Adopted)

1 April 2019

Type of text

(name in English / name in the official language)

parliamentary act / törvény

If federal State

If Regional State

Enacted by

Hungarian National Assembly

Reference to the Constitution (art)

Article VII. (freedom of thought, conscience and religion)

Articles 6 (1), 43 (4) and 24 (9) (qualified majority requirements)

Subject area

freedom of thought, conscience and religion

If the act implements a source of EU Law: cite the relevant EU legal source

 

Comment

The law is another step in the ongoing reform of the regulation on freedom of religion and the status of churches started not long after the entry into office of the Fidesz-KDNP government in 2010. Many European bodies expressed concerns about the church reform:

1)     Venice Commission, Opinion on Act CCVI of 2011 on the right to freedom of conscience and religion and the legal status of churches, denominations and religious communities of Hungary, CDL-AD(2012)004-e

2)     Magyar Keresztény Mennonita Egyház and Others v. Hungary, Applications nos. 70945/11, 23611/12, 26998/12, 41150/12, 41155/12, 41463/12, 41553/12, 54977/12 and 56581/12, judgement of 8 April 2014

3)     Report on a proposal calling on the Council to determine, pursuant to Article 7(1) of the Treaty on European Union, the existence of a clear risk of a serious breach by Hungary of the values on which the Union is founded (2017/2131(INL)) (“Sargentini Report) paras. 36 - 38

The overall aim of the present act is to extend the privileges enjoyed by the “incorporated churches” (recognized by the National Assembly as such) to a broader range of religious organizations which requires the simultaneous amendment to many relevant acts in the field of social care, tax benefits, state aid, protection of cultural heritage, health care, education etc.

Secondary sources/ doctrinal works (if any)

About the reform of the regulation on freedom of religion and the status of churches:

Uitz, Renáta: sid=87818cd8-4e8a-4ecb-80fc-15987f6eb2e1@sdc-v-sessmgr03">Hungary's New Constitution and Its New Law on Freedom of Religion and Churches: The Return of the Sovereign, Brigham Young University Law Review, Vol. 2012, Issue 3 (2012), pp. 931-968

Schanda, Balázs : sid=87818cd8-4e8a-4ecb-80fc-15987f6eb2e1@sdc-v-sessmgr03">The Freedom of Religious Association in Hungary: Recent Developments, Religion & Human Rights, Vol. 8 Issue 1 (2013), pp. 65-75

Uitz, Renáta : sid=87818cd8-4e8a-4ecb-80fc-15987f6eb2e1@sdc-v-sessmgr03">Lessons on Access to Legal Entity Status for Religious Communities for Europe: Hungary's New Religion Law Faces Repeated Challenges, Religion & Human Rights, Vol. 8 Issue 1 (2013), pp. 43-63

Mink, Júlia : sid=87818cd8-4e8a-4ecb-80fc-15987f6eb2e1@sdc-v-sessmgr03">The Hungarian Act CCVI of 2011 on Freedom of Conscience and Religion and on the Legal Status of Churches, Religious Denominations and Religious Associations in Light of the Jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights, Religion & Human Rights, Vol. 8 Issue 1 (2013), pp. 3-22

Koltay, András : sid=87818cd8-4e8a-4ecb-80fc-15987f6eb2e1@sdc-v-sessmgr03">The Freedom of Speech of Religious Communities and their Protection from Freedom of Speech in the Hungarian Legal System, Religion & Human Rights, Vol. 8 Issue 1 (2013), pp. 23-42

Available Text

http://njt.hu/cgi_bin/njt_doc.cgi?docid=213707.367040

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